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SUPPORTING INFORMATION Additional supporting information may be found online in the Supporting Information section.

How to cite this article: Wang, S., Xun, Y., Ahern, G. J., Feng, L., Zhang, D., Xue, Y., Ross, R. P., Doolan, A. M., Stanton, C., & Zhu, H. (2021). A randomized, double blind, parallel, placebo-controlled study to investigate the efficacy of Lactobacillus paracasei N1115 in gut development of young children. Food Science & Nutrition , 00, 1–11. https://doi. org/10.1002/fsn3.2533

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