Endothelial Function in Overweight Adult

Nutrients 2020 , 12 , 141

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Figure 2. Basal (T0) and postprandial (T1–T3) FMD ( A ), blood glucose ( B ), and insulin levels ( C ) following the ingestion of isomaltulose ( ) and sucrose ( ). All values are reported as mean ± SD; T0 = 0 min, T1 = 60 min, T2 = 120 min, T3 = 180 min; * Significant difference between isomaltulose and sucrose; paired t test: p < 0.05. 3.3. Blood Analyses and Associations between Blood Glucose and Insulin Levels with Endothelial Function As expected, there was a rise in blood glucose and insulin levels after carbohydrate ingestion ( Error! Reference source not found. Figure 2B,C). With regard to the blood glucose response, an exploratory analysis revealed significantly higher blood glucose levels at all time points after isomaltulose ingestion compared to sucrose ingestion (paired t test: all p values <0.05). For insulin, the response levels were significantly higher after isomaltulose administration compared to sucrose intake (paired t test: p < 0.05), with the exception of T1. Independent of the carbohydrate, a correlation analysis between FMD and blood glucose levels at different time points showed a trend for a negative association at T0 and T2 (r ‐ range = − 0.202 to − 0.230, p < 0.1; data not shown). With respect to insulin response, no associations with baseline or postprandial FMD were observed. 3.4. Differences in Endothelial Function Depending on Insulin Sensitivity Status For this exploratory analysis, fasting blood glucose and insulin levels were available for 70 subjects. On the basis of their HOMA index prior to the first intervention, 79% of the subjects were classified as IS, and 21% as IR. Error! Reference source not found. demonstrates the change in FMD from baseline ( ∆ FMD Tx ‐ T0 ) for IR and IS subjects. Generally, subjects with IR showed a higher decline in FMD at T1 and T2 compared to IS subjects, which was independent of the carbohydrate ingested (unpaired t test; p > 0.05). When compared to sucrose, the ingestion of isomaltulose showed a lower

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