Endothelial Function in Overweight Adult

Nutrients 2020 , 12 , 141

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1 Values are reported as mean ± SD. 2 FMD, flow ‐ mediated dilation; HOMA, homeostasis model assessment. 3 Classified according to the HOMA on their first intervention day: HOMA < 2.5 = insulin ‐ sensitive; HOMA ≥ 2.5 = insulin ‐ resistant; BMI, body mass index. 3.2. Effects of Acute Isomaltulose and Sucrose Intakes on Endothelial Function Of the 80 subjects, 78 were subjected to the four brachial ultrasound FMD scans at each of the two visits. This amounted to 624 scans, of which 596 provided FMD data (a success rate of 95.5%). For 19 of the subjects, due to anatomic and/or ultrasound imaging reasons, 28 of the brachial scans could not provide FMD data (4.5%). For the primary statistical analysis, the available fully completed FMD datasets of 61 subjects were used. The overall FMD change from baseline showed maintenance of the endothelial function after isomaltulose administration ( Δ FMD ISO,T1–T3 = − 0.003%) and a minor, non ‐ significant, negative change after sucrose administration ( Δ FMD SUC,T1–T3 = − 0.151%). The mixed repeated ‐ measures analysis of variance controlling for baseline FMD showed no significant interaction between treatment and period ( p > 0.05). The consumption of 50 g of carbohydrate led to a decrease in FMD at T1, with changes from baseline FMD ( Δ FMD) of − 0.40% and − 0.74% for isomaltulose ( Δ FMD ISO,T1 ) and sucrose ( Δ FMD SUC,T1 ), respectively (see Figure 2A). At T2, FMD increased and, after isomaltulose intake, reached baseline FMD. In contrast, after sucrose intake, although there was an increase from T1 to T2, FMD at T2 was still below baseline FMD ( Δ FMD SUC,T2 = − 0.27%, Δ FMD ISO,T2 = +0.12%). In further explorative analyses, between ‐ visit, within ‐ subject paired FMD data points of the four brachial ultrasound scan time points T0, T1, T2, and T3 h were available in 73 (94%), 71 (91%), 72 (92%), and 71 (91%) subjects, respectively. After two hours (T2), the absolute FMD was significantly higher following isomaltulose intake compared to sucrose intake (at T2) (FMD ISO,T2 = 5.9 ± 2.9%, FMD SUC,T2 = 5.4 ± 2.6%, paired t test: p < 0.05). When compared to T2, FMD following isomaltulose administration was almost unchanged at T3, with a change from baseline FMD of +0.19%. In contrast, for sucrose, a rebound was observed at T3, resulting in +0.58% compared to baseline FMD.

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