Endothelial Function in Overweight Adult

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Author Contributions: Conceptualization, E.d.G. and S.T.; Investigation, E.d.G.; Methodology, E.d.G.; Resources, S.T.; Visualization, L.S.; Writing—Original draft, L.S.; Writing—Review & editing, E.d.G. and S.T. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. Funding: This research was funded by BENEO GmbH/Südzucker Group. Acknowledgments: We would like to thank all subjects for their participation in this study. Moreover, we acknowledge the CRO Atlantia Food Clinical Trials for conducting the study. Conflicts of Interest: E.d.G. has honorary consultancies with Atlantia Food CRO, COLSWE environmental sensors, AiREAS corporation and Municipality of Eindhoven, and the Departments of Clinical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, and Gastroenterolog, of the Amsterdam UMC—Academic Medical Centre. E.d.G. receives writing fees from Up ‐ to ‐ Date in Cardiology (Wolters Kluwer). E.d.G. is owner and employee of Imagelabonline & Cardiovascular. Imagelabonline served as a subcontractor for Atlantia Food CRO, Cork, Ireland in the present study. E.d.G. also received research grants from the AMC Research Foundation, Academic Medical Center—Amsterdam UMC, Bioactor BV, Pfizer, LSP ‐ Quartz, and the Municipality of Eindhoven. Otherwise, E.d.G. has no disclosures to make. S.T. and L.S. are employees of BENEO GmbH/Südzucker Group. In this double ‐ blinded study, source data were provided by Atlantia Food Clinical Trials CRO, Cork, Ireland. Primary data analysis and report generation were undertaken by Atlantia Food Clinical Trials CRO independently from the sponsor. The statistical analyses of this publication have been developed for BENEO GmbH, which was also the exclusive sponsor of the project. BENEO GmbH reserves the exclusive right to use the results and data for possible Health Claim requests. References 1. Rask ‐ Madsen, C.; King, G.L. Mechanisms of Disease: Endothelial dysfunction in insulin resistance and diabetes. Nat. Clin. Pr. Endocrinol. Metab. 2007 , 3 , 46–56, doi:10.1038/ncpendmet0366. 2. Brunner, H.; Cockcroft, J.R.; Deanfield, J.; Donald, A.; Ferrannini, E.; Halcox, J.; Kiowski, W.; Luscher, T.F.; Mancia, G.; Natali, A.; et al. Endothelial function and dysfunction. Part II: Association with cardiovascular risk factors and diseases. A statement by the Working Group on Endothelins and Endothelial Factors of the European Society of Hypertension. J. Hypertens. 2005 , 23 , 233–246. 3. Wilkins, E.; Wilson, L.; Wickramasinghe, K.; Bhatnagar, P.; Rayner, M.; Townsend, N. European Cardiovascular Disease Statistics 2017 ; European Heart Network: Brussels, Belgium, 2017. 4. Wang, H.; Naghavi, M.; Allen, C.; Barber, R.M.; Bhutta, Z.A.; Carter, A.; Casey, D.C.; Charlson, F.J.; Chen, A.Z.; Coates, M.M.; et al. Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all ‐ cause mortality, and cause ‐ specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet 2016 , 388 , 1459–1544, doi:10.1016/S0140 ‐ 6736(16)31012 ‐ 1. 5. Fuster, V. Global burden of cardiovascular disease: Time to implement feasible strategies and to monitor results. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2014 , 64 , 520–522, doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2014.06.1151. 6. Thijssen, D.H.J.; Black, M.A.; Pyke, K.E.; Padilla, J.; Atkinson, G.; Harris, R.A.; Parker, B.; Widlansky, M.E.; Tschakovsky, M.E.; Green, D.J. Assessment of flow ‐ mediated dilation in humans: A methodological and physiological guideline. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 2011 , 300 , 12, doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00471.2010. 7. Bonetti, P.O.; Lerman, L.O.; Lerman, A. Endothelial dysfunction: A marker of atherosclerotic risk. Arter. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2003 , 23 , 168–175. 8. Manrique, C.; Lastra, G.; Sowers, J.R. New insights into insulin action and resistance in the vasculature. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 2014 , 1311 , 138–150, doi:10.1111/nyas.12395. 9. Muniyappa, R.; Sowers, J.R. Role of insulin resistance in endothelial dysfunction. Rev. Endocr. Metab. Disord. 2013 , 14 , 5–12, doi:10.1007/s11154 ‐ 012 ‐ 9229 ‐ 1. 10. Mather, K.J.; Mirzamohammadi, B.; Lteif, A.; Steinberg, H.O.; Baron, A.D. Endothelin contributes to basal vascular tone and endothelial dysfunction in human obesity and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2002 , 51 , 3517– 3523. 11. DeMarco, V.G.; Aroor, A.R.; Sowers, J.R. The pathophysiology of hypertension in patients with obesity. Nat. Rev. Endocrinol. 2014 , 10 , 364–376, doi:10.1038/nrendo.2014.44. 12. Bell, D.S.H.; O ′ Keefe, J.H.; Jellinger, P. Postprandial dysmetabolism: The missing link between diabetes and cardiovascular events? Endocr. Pract. 2008 , 14 , 112–124, doi:10.4158/EP.14.1.112. 13. Garber, A.J. Postprandial dysmetabolism and the heart. Heart Fail. Clin. 2012 , 8 , 563–573, doi:10.1016/j.hfc.2012.06.004.

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