In vitro–in vivo Validation of Stimulatory Effect of Oat In…


Article In vitro–in vivo Validation of Stimulatory Effect of Oat Ingredients on Lactobacilli Cindy Duysburgh 1 , Pieter Van den Abbeele 1 , Alison Kamil 2 , Lisa Fleige 2 , Peter John De Chavez 2 , YiFang Chu 2 , Wiley Barton 3,4 , Orla O’Sullivan 3,4 , Paul D. Cotter 3,4 , Karina Quilter 4,5 , Susan A. Joyce 4,5 , Mike Murphy 6 , Gillian DunnGalvin 6 , Timothy G Dinan 4,7 and Massimo Marzorati 1,8, *

1 ProDigest BV, 9052 Ghent, Belgium; (C.D.); (P.V.d.A.) 2 PepsiCo R&D, Barrington, IL 60010, USA; (A.K.); (L.F.); (P.J.D.C.); (Y.C.) 3 Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark Fermoy, P61 C996 Cork, Ireland; (W.B.); (O.O.); (P.D.C.) 4 APC Microbiome Institute, T12 Cork, Ireland; (K.Q.); (S.A.J.); (T.G.D.) 5 School of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, University College Cork, T12 Cork, Ireland 6 Atlantia Food Clinical Trials, Heron House Offices, First Floor, Blackpool, T23 Cork, Ireland; (M.M.); (G.D.) 7 Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioural Science, University College Cork, T12 Cork, Ireland 8 Center of Microbial Ecology and Technology (CMET), Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium * Correspondence:; Tel.: +32-9-241-11-90 Abstract: The prebiotic activity of a commercially available oat product and a novel oat ingredient, at similar β -glucan loads, was tested using a validated in vitro gut model (M-SHIME ® ). The novel oat ingredient was tested further at lower β -glucan loads in vitro, while the commercially available oat product was assessed in a randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, and cross-over human study. Both approaches focused on healthy individuals with mild hypercholesterolemia. In vitro analysis revealed that both oat products strongly stimulated Lactobacillaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae in the intestinal lumen and the simulated mucus layer, and corresponded with enhanced levels of acetate and lactate with cross-feeding interactions leading to an associated increase in propionate and butyrate production. The in vitro prebiotic activity of the novel oat ingredient remained at lower β -glucan levels, indicating the prebiotic potential of the novel oat product. Finally, the stimulation of Lactobacillus spp. was confirmed during the in vivo trial, where lactobacilli abundance significantly increased in the overall population at the end of the intervention period with the commercially available oat product relative to the control product, indicating the power of in vitro gut models in predicting in vivo response of the microbial community to dietary modulation.


Citation: Duysburgh, C.; Van den Abbeele, P.; Kamil, A.; Fleige, L.; De Chavez, P.J.; Chu, Y.; Barton, W.; O’Sullivan, O.; Cotter, P.D.; Quilter, K.; et al. In vitro–in vivo Validation of Stimulatory Effect of Oat Ingredients on Lactobacilli. Pathogens 2021 , 10 , 235. pathogens10020235

Academic Editors: Lawrence S. Young and Ana Elena P é rezCobas

Received: 24 December 2020 Accepted: 11 February 2021 Published: 19 February 2021

Keywords: Bifidobacterium ; Lactobacillus ; beta-glucan; intestine; microbiota; in vitro–in vivo correlation

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1. Introduction Prebiotics are defined as non-digestible substrates that are selectively utilised by the gut microbiome, thereby conferring beneficial effects for the host [1]. Oat products contain several soluble components capable of exerting prebiotic properties, such as β -glucans, arabinoxylans, arabinogalactans, resistant starch, and polyphenolic compounds. However, many of the health-promoting effects related to the consumption of oat products have been attributed to the intake of β -glucans. These non-starch polysaccharides consist of β -linked chains of D-glucose monomers, differing in their branching structure, viscosity, solubility, and molecular weight [2], and they have been associated with a reduction of systemic cholesterol levels [3], regulation of blood glucose concentrations, improved weight management [4], and modulation of immune function [2].

Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// 4.0/).

Pathogens 2021 , 10 , 235.

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